Most of Japan's mountains are of volcanic origin. It’s no wonder that the symbol of Japan is Mount Fuji, an active volcano; Japan’s dramatic mountainous landscapes have been formed by one of the most volcanically active places on Earth. From Wikipedia Commons. At a subduction zone, a plate (usually an oceanic plate) is going deep into the Earth. Japan has so many volcanoes because it lies right over the eastern part of the Ring of Fire, a large belt of volcanic activity largely caused by plate... Our experts can answer your tough homework and study questions. NOAA’s West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center - Lesson for Kids, Transform Fault: Definition & Characteristics, FTCE Middle Grades General Science 5-9 (004): Test Practice & Study Guide, ILTS Science - Environmental Science (112): Test Practice and Study Guide, SAT Subject Test Chemistry: Practice and Study Guide, ILTS Science - Chemistry (106): Test Practice and Study Guide, UExcel Anatomy & Physiology: Study Guide & Test Prep, Human Anatomy & Physiology: Help and Review, High School Biology: Homework Help Resource, Biological and Biomedical So, when thinking about whether or not a rock will become molten, you need to think about both temperature and pressure. As a consequence, Japan is very prone … A magnitude-7.0 earthquake struck southern Japan today, less than two days after a 6.2-magnitude temblor rocked the same region, triggering tsunami advisories in the area. Almost 80% of Japan’s surface is a mountainous territory with more than 100 volcanoes, some of which are still active. They remain hot, but because they are brought up to a more shallow part of the Earth, they have less confining pressure and are able to melt. So, at mid-ocean ridges- places where tectonic plates move apart and rocks are able to move upwards quickly- rocks melt because of adiabatic decompression melting. Legend has it that the Japanese islands were created by the couple Izanami and Izanagi and their heavenly spear, but it is more likely that plate movement about 15 million years is the cause. Thanks! Volcanoes are temporary features on the earth's surface and there are currently about 1500 active volcanoes in the world. There are currently tsunami warnings for the Pacific, so if you live on the West coast of the US or anywhere in the Pacific Ocean, please be cautious. Figure from Tasa Graphics. Japan is home to 10% of the world's active volcanoes, and a surge in small-scale volcanic activity has had the nation on edge in the wake of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. Here are a couple of images showing subduction: When an oceanic plate subducts underneath a continental plate, this produces volcanism on the continent, such as the volcanism that occurs in the Western US in the Cascades. That’s the reason why there are a lot of Volcanoes in the Philippines. Which ocean has a ring of volcanoes around it? I’ll update this list as I find more good sites: Geoblogs: Here is a list of top 5 most famous volcanoes in Japan. To put it simply, the large volatiles sort of interrupt the normal chemical bonds in the rock and make it easier to break apart that rock and turn it from solid to liquid. Here is a list of top 5 most famous volcanoes in Japan. This blog In January 1995, a strong earthquake hit the city of Kobeand surroundings. Add your answer and earn points. As a quick reminder for those of you who are a little rusty on Geology 101, a volcanic island arc is a place where volcanoes are produced above a subduction zone. Posted in: The USGS (US Geological Survey) tsunami warning for the US can be found here. Simply put, there is so much earthshaking in Japan because the Japanese islands are part of a volcanic island arc. Japan is situatedalong the world's most active earthquake belt, the Pacific Ring of Fire, whererigid plates in the Earth's crust collide along the rim of the Pacific Ocean. Site. For more information on this and some beautiful diagrams to help you visualise this process you might want to check out this excellent post on Georneys. Which area of Russia is volcanically active? Become a Study.com member to unlock this But what about subduction zones, places where plates converge? CNN has converted these to Pacific Standard Time estimates. 100,000 homes were completely destroyed and 185,000 were sever… […], […] A thorough explanation of why Japan has so many earthquakes and volcanoes […], Your email address will not be published. To breakdown the previous phrase: adiabatic = no heat loss, decompression = less pressure, and melting = solid to liquid. Finally, why do earthquakes occur at subduction zones such as Japan? Mountain Beltway Japan has over 100 active volcanoes, more than almost any other country and accounts alone for about 10 % of all active volcanoes in the world. Paleoseismicity Why Do So Many People Live Near Active Volcanoes? It is one of the country's were valcanoes erupt. We … Basically, wet ocean floor is being subducted (that is, pushed down in the Earth) usually together with devastating earthquakes. Why is there so much earthshaking in Japan? Also, it is fomed on the volcanic line, called "Ring of Fire. Because Japan is part of the Pacific "Ring of Fire", and sits on 4 tectonic plates. The second figure shows that there has been quite a bit of earthshaking- both small and large- in this area of Japan since 1990. Something that is unique about subduction plate boundaries (relative to convergent and transform- or sliding- plate boundaries) is that there can be very deep earthquakes. Here are a few more geoblogs & websites discussing the Japanese earthquake. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Japan, much like Hawaii was created from volcanoes, Mount Fuji is the tallest volcano in Japan though it is dormient (dormant). interesting to read your explanation of the effects on rocks caused by the introduction of volatiles such as carbon dioxide and water – are you aware whether there have been any geological drilling expeditions off the east-coast of honshu island which could have flooded the fault-zone with either of these compounds and which, as a result, could have triggered the earthquake? There are over 100 active volcanoes across the Japanese islands, which accounts for about 10% of all active volcanoes in the world. The formation of these mountains is caused by volcanoes erupting and magma accumulating and hardening. Once down, the water is released from the ocean floor into the surrounding rocks and melts them. The same principle works in the deep Earth. Known as the Southern Hyogo Earthquake or Great Hanshin Earthquake, it killed 6,000 and injured 415,000 people. In the normal case, the solidus and the geotherm do not cross and no melting (and thus no volcanism) is produced. These volcanoes are principally linked to five different tectonic environments: subduction, back-arc rifting, continental rifting, sea-floor spreading, and a fourth one that is very poorly understood. Above this line, the mantle starts to melt. Also Japan has so many volcanoes because they are near the equator. Think about it- the interior of the Earth is very hot, much hotter than the shallow Earth where melts feeding volcanoes are generated. Japan, much like Hawaii was created from volcanoes, Mount Fuji is the tallest volcano in Japan though it is dormient (dormant). 8 Comments/Trackbacks ». It turns out, if you add water, carbon dioxide, or another volatile to a rock, it will melt at a much lower temperature than normal. Aside from that, the energy is used by the locals to make life a little bit more comfortable such as providing heated water as well as household heating should the need arise. Let’s say that melting a rock requires 1200 °C but the ambient temperature is only 900 °C. When plates diverge, mantle material rises and decompresses- the mantle melts because it encounters a lower pressure. There … Simply put, there is so much earthshaking in Japan because the Japanese islands are part of a volcanic island arc.  As a quick reminder for those of you who are a little rusty on Geology 101, a volcanic island arc is a place where volcanoes are produced above a subduction zone. Earthquakes occur where plates move apart (such as at mid-ocean ridges), slide past each other (such as at the San Andreas fault), or converge and subduct (such as at Japan). - Definition, Facts & Location, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. Figure taken from NOAA, Volcanic island arc & subduction zone. This is why authorities add salt to ice on roads during winter – to melt it away even though it’s not actually hotter than 0 °C. The JMA defines active volcanoes in Japan as volcanoes which have erupted within 10,000 years or volcanoes with … 1. In case there is no steam to provide energy, it is possible to manually create a source of steam. Callan Bentley over at Mountain Beltway has a good summary of earthquake coverage. They created beautiful overview of their mountain ranges and forests around the vents. For those of you who have not yet heard, there has recently been an enormous Magnitude 8.9 earthquake and an accompanying tsunami in Japan. Here is a figure showing that Japan is part of a greater subduction zone called the Pacific “Ring of Fire”: But why is there volcanism above a subduction zone? About ten percent of these are located in the United States. Active volcanoes dominate the skyline of the Pacific Northwest. The familiar snow-clad peaks of the Cascade Range are part of a 1,300 km (800 mi) chain of volcanoes, which extends from northern California to southern British Columbia. Each segment of the ring is arcuate, thus the name arc volcanoes. Nice. ... Why So Many … Powerful quakes strike Japan 36 photos. There are lots of big earthquakes in the island in last decade, Okushiri earthquake in 1993 and island earthquake in … answer! So, it doesn’t surprise me that the ancient Japanese attributed Japan’s creation to gods due to its varied, complex, and even surprising terrain. It may seem counterintuitive to live near a mountain that could rain ash and lava down on you and your family, but there are benefits, too. Worldwide Plate Boundaries. Highly Allochthonous, Other Websites: Simply put, there is so much earthshaking in Japan because the Japanese islands are part of a volcanic island arc. Thanks for helping me unlearn yet another 'fact' from high school science classes. In Response to: Magnitude 8.9 Earthquake & Tsunami in Japan. The reason that the interior of the Earth is not all melted, even though it is very hot, is because there is also an enormous amount of pressure in the interior of the Earth. Geologists often talk about fancy shmancy “adiabatic decompression melting” occurring at mid-ocean ridges. Mount Fuji. As for the anti-Japanese editorializing, please stop. For starters, Japan is located along the so-called Pacific Ring of Fire, which is the most active earthquake belt in the world. Japan lies along the Pacific Ring of Fire (area where numerous active volcanoes and earthquakes occur). Japan has so many volcanoes because it lies right over the eastern part of the Ring of Fire, a large belt of volcanic activity largely caused by plate... See full answer below. Here are a few historical maps from the USGS showing seismicity (aka earthshaking) in the area where the recent Japan earthquake originated. Yet the volcanoes are there, and many of them are active or potentially active. Evelyn is a geologist, writer, traveler, and aspiring polyglot. Mount Sakurajima in Japan is one of the world's most active volcanoes, with hundreds of years of recorded eruptions. When this plate subducts, it brings volatiles with it into the mantle– for instance, water stored in deep-sea sediments. USGS Some of the famous volcanoes are as follows: Oshima-Oshima Volcano. Figure taken from. This molten rock is less dense than the surrounding solid rock, so it flows upward to the surface. Why is there so much earthshaking in Japan? When an oceanic plate subducts underneath another oceanic plate, a volcanic island arc is formed. I accept your presentation on the issues, Please also analyse, how will we improve the knowledge of the natural disaster before know to the people, like the proverbs of; "prevention is better than cure". The jet of hot rock punches a hole through the crust and creates a volcano which eventually emerges from the ocean as an island. Figure from Tasa Graphics. Hot-spot volcanoes form rather simply: a thermal anomaly deep in the Earth causes rocks to heat up and melt. Hokkaido is one of the most seismically active islands of Japan. When plates converge and subduction occurs, the subducting plate releases volatiles (such as water and carbon dioxide) and these volatiles lower the solidus temperature and the mantle melts. The andesites of Glencoe , Scotland long predate any currently extant ocean floor, but look like a similar story. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal Well, this relates to a fundamental concept in geology- why do rocks melt? There are 110 active volcanoes in Japan. Geotripper From majestic Mount Fuji to an underwater volcano that formed a new island just last year, Japan’s 109 active volcanoes account for around 10 percent of all of the active volcanoes in the world. The geotherm is the rate at which the temperature changes with depth in the Earth. Worldwide earthquake distribution. Image taken from, Plate boundaries, subduction zones, and volcanoes in the Pacific “Ring of Fire.” Figure taken from, Excellent diagram showing the three ways that melts are produced on Earth. NOAA’s West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center, Disney–Pixar’s “Lava” explained by a geologist–volcanologist | OnCirculation, The Latest: Friday’s spectacular volcanic eruption in Japan, in one GIFKALEINAR.COM -, The Bridge: Connecting Science and Policy, Estimated tsunami travel times. The interaction of these three plates makes large earthquakes, such as the recent 8.9 magnitude one, a likely occurrence. There is a tremendous amount of energy created by these plates and they easily melt rock into magma, which rises to the surface as lava and forms volcanoes. Services, What Is the Ring of Fire? Click to view larger. So there are many volcanoes, but only a small percentage are active. Also notice the several “spots” of volcanoes far from the arcs – those are usually the hot-spot volcanoes. Historically, there has been quite a bit of earthshaking in the area of Japan where the recent, enormous earthquake originated. The mantle melts at subduction zones because of the addition of volatiles, such as water and carbon dioxide. At hotspots, the geotherm is higher (by about 100-200 degrees C) and melting is able to occur. Mount Fuji is Japan's highest mountain and its most famous volcano. Dan’s Wild Science Journal Volcanoes of Japan (By T. Miyazaki, 2010) Japan is a part of the Eurasia continent and made up of more than 6,000 islands. Mount Fuji is one of the active volcanoes located on Honshu, about 100 kilometres to the southwest of Tokyo. Of those, 47 are watched especially closely because they have erupted recently or shown worrying signs, such … Obviously you haven't been there - it looks though like you've been fed a steady dose of propaganda. Why are there so many volcanoes in and around japan See answer dreamergirl is waiting for your help. While volcanoes cause major destruction and inconvenience during their eruptions, many of them are also tourist attractions for their scenic landscapes, hiking trails and relaxing hot springs. 'Adiabatic decompression melting' makes so much more sense than 'lava escapes from the mantle!'. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. While the gigantic 8.9 magnitude earthquake is impressive even for Japan, this is a part of the planet where geologists expect large and frequent earthquakes. It is located at the junction of 4 tectonic plates - the Pacific, Philippine, Eurasian and North American plate. From majestic Mount Fuji to an underwater volcano that formed a new island just last year, Japan’s 109 active volcanoes account for around 10 percent of all of the active volcanoes in the world. Many communities around the world contend with the dangers of nearby volcanoes and some even refuse to move when there's every indication an eruption may be imminent. Pele is the goddess of the volcano in Hawaii and can be fiery girl so beware. Why does Indonesia have so much seismic... What is the Ring of Fire? Hawaii is a wonderful example of such hot-spot volcanism. Near the recent earthquake location, three tectonic plates are interacting! In fact, Japan is known as the country of notorious earthquakes and volcanic activities. There are few countries that deal with as much volcanic activity as Japan. When the subducting plate is heated as it plunges into the hot, deep mantle, these volatiles are released and travel upwards since they are buoyant. The islands of Japan rose from underneath sea level because of volcanic eruptions and seismic activity so, there are lots of volcanoes around 1 0 Choco Crunchies This makes Japan home to more than 108 active volcanoes. Figure from Tasa Graphics. When the geotherm crosses the solidus, melts are produced. Since I have quite a few non-geologist readers, I thought I would quickly discuss why Japan is such an earthshaking place with so many earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanoes. What two plates caused the volcano Krakatau? Located on the Pacific Ring of Fire, there are 110 active volcanoes in Japan, some, like Mount Fuji, famous worldwide. Figure taken from, Artistic (not quite scientifically accurate but very pretty) depiction of an island arc & subduction zone. This is because these mountains are surrounded by a beautiful natural scenery as well as hot springs. NOAA’s Pacific Tsunami Warning Center. Japan Wants To Send Wooden Satellites Into Space ... there are many people who live on volcanoes less out of reverence for them and more out of necessity. Volcanoes in Japan 1. How many volcanoes are in the Ring of Fire? By adding water to the rock, the melting point of the mixture goes down below 900 °C and you get magma. earthquake, subduction zone, volcano Click to view larger. Yet, the interior of the Earth is pretty much all solid, except for the outer core. Wow. Because the Philippines is within the so called Ring of Fire (Realm). Also there are lots of active volcanoes like Mount Koma, Mount Tokachi and Mount Tarumae in the island. […] Notice the “ring” of volcanoes around the Pacific Ocean. Here is a comparison of earthquakes and tectonic plate boundaries: Notice how deep earthquakes occur at subduction zones: Finally, below is a figure showing why Japan is an especially tumultuous region of plate convergence. Why Study Cascade Volcanoes? - Lesson for Kids, Alfred Wegener's Theory of Continental Drift, Oceanic Ridge System: Formation & Distribution, Tsunamis Lesson for Kids Facts & Information, How Plate Movement Affects Earthquakes, Tsunamis & Volcanic Eruptions, The Internal Layers & Structure of the Earth, Continental Drift Lesson for Kids: Theory & Facts, How are Mountains Formed? Your email address will not be published. A subduction zone is a place where one tectonic plate is going underneath (aka subducting) another tectonic plate. Oki-Dogo volcano is a complex of shield volcanoes forming small islands north of the SW Honshu city of Matsue in the Japan Sea off the west coast of Japan. Rocks tend to lose heat very slowly, so if they are brought upwards quickly enough they won’t have time to cool down. You might add an example or two of ancient arc environments as illustration that this is an old phenomenon. This may be counter-intuitive: we usually think of water as something that puts fire out, not something that melts rocks. All rights reserved. Hawaii Volcanoes National Park is located 100 miles SE of Kona and 30 miles south of Hilo. A common misconception is that rocks melt because they are heated. However, Japanese historians recorded volcanic hazards in reports, songs, and poems when they erupted. But Japan is hardly dangerous. "Many scientists believe that most of Japan Islands were under the sea before Miocene. Think about it like that: melting pure water ice requires 0 °C and melting pure table salt requires more than 800 °C. The location of the recent earthquake is given as an orange star: The first figure shows that there have been many large (greater than magnitude 7)  and shallow (meaning more destructive at Earth’s surface) earthquakes in this area of Japan since 1900. Click to view larger. Below is a map of estimated tsunami travel times. Did you know that there are 24 active volcanoes in the Philippines? The volcano has been spitting out small amounts of … Worldwide distribution of earthquake depth. Most rocks on Earth actually melt because of a sudden change in pressure. Many parts of the country have experienced devastating earthquakes and tidal waves in the past. Volcanoes in Japan 1. Mount Fuji is one of the active volcanoes located on Honshu, about 100 kilometres to the southwest of Tokyo. In fact, Japan is known as the country of notorious earthquakes and volcanic activities. Many of Japan’s 111 active volcanoes are located within national parks, and make for stunning destinations to experience the country’s natural beauty. She currently works in industry. Why are there Earthquakes and Volcanoes in Japan? From the east you drive through rainfroest from the west across lava fields and the flanks of Mauna Loa. Although, there are many active as well as dormant volcanoes in Japan, this country is a favorite tourist destination. According to the Japan Meteorogolical Agency (JMA), there are currently 108 active volcanoes in Japan which accounts for about 1/10 of all 840 active volcanoes in the world.Eruptions are detected in an average of 10 volcanoes per year, sometimes causing great disasters. New questions in Chemistry. Oki-Dogo volcano is a complex of shield volcanoes forming small islands north of the SW Honshu city of Matsue in the Japan Sea off the west coast of Japan. The solidus is the line below which the mantle is solid. Click to view larger. Depth of earthquakes at a subduction zone. Japan is situatedalong the world's most active earthquake belt, the Pacific Ring of Fire, whererigid plates in the Earth's crust collide along the rim of the Pacific Ocean. The National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan - Japan Meteorological Agency; 日本の主な山岳標高 (Elevation of Principal Mountains in Japan) - Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (in Japanese) This page was last edited on 2 October 2020, at … Also Japan has so many volcanoes because they are near the equator. The little triangles indicate a subduction zone boundary. Create your account. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Get access to this video and our entire Q&A library. There are 108 active volcanoes in the country of Japan, which represent approximately 10 percent of the world's total. Why is there so much earthshaking in Japan? As a quick reminder for those of you who are a little rusty on Geology 101, a volcanic island arc is a place where volcanoes are produced above a subduction zone. Arc volcanism is slightly more complex. There is no land originally, but a chain of island arcs builds up as volcanism develops above the subduction zone. Dormant Volcanoes - Japan Some active volcanoes have been dormant for hundreds or thousands of years.. My fellow geobloggers are currently doing a great job of covering the recent news of the Japan earthquake. She has undergraduate degrees in Earth Sciences and Arabic Language & Literature from Dartmouth College and a PhD in Marine Geology from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology / Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Joint Program. Brainly User Brainly User Japan is considered to be in "The ring of Fire". The trick here is that it happens deep in the Earth – the water can’t escape or evaporate. Figure taken from, Three tectonic plates in Japan. Where is it located and... How did the Philippine archipelago break out from... What is the climate for the Pacific Region? This makes Japan home to more than 108 active volcanoes. Hawaiin volcanic activity is due to a Mid-ocean Hot Spot or mantle plume firing a jet of hot rock at the base of the Pacific Ocean crust over the past 70million years to form the Hawaiin-Emperor Semount chain. Why are there so many earthquakes in South... Hawaii and other areas in the Pacific have a high... Is the Ring of Fire around the Pacific Plate? The volcanoes belong to the Pacific Ring of Fire, caused by subduction zones of the Pacific plate beneath continental and other oceanic plates along its margins. Since most of the Earth’s surface is covered by oceans, it turns out that a rather large proportion of hot-spot volcanoes erupt underwater. The reason why Japan has so many volcanic peaks is because its 6,800 or so islands are strung across the Pacific Ring of Fire – a zone of significant seismic activity. Well, any place where tectonic plates move past one another will occasionally experience earthshaking. © copyright 2003-2021 Study.com. The wonderful diagram below (from Wikipedia Commons) explains how melts are produced in the Earth. A magnitude-7.0 earthquake struck southern Japan today, less than two days after a 6.2-magnitude temblor rocked the same region, triggering tsunami advisories in the area. To translate this into everyday language, “adiabatic decompression melting” just means that melting occurs because rock is moved quickly upward in the Earth. This is the best overall explanation and best graphics I've seen of these issues and forces. Volcanoes in Guatemala, Hawaii and Indonesia Have Killed 62 and Cost the Economy Millions. The Great Kanto Earthquake, the worst in Japanese history, hit the Kanto plain around Tokyoin 1923 and resulted in the deaths of over 100,000 people. Now that you understand what that means, you have a great science phrase to impress your friends with at that next party. The volatiles lower the melting temperature of the rock above the subducting plate and this rock melts, forming volcanoes above the subduction zone. Why is Hawaii in the middle of the Pacific... Cinder Cone Volcano Facts: Lesson for Kids, Tectonic Plates Lesson for Kids: Definition, Theory & Facts, Fold Mountains Lesson for Kids: Definition & Facts, San Andreas Fault: Location, Facts & Earthquakes, Where Are Fossils Found? And no melting ( and thus no volcanism ) is produced which accounts for about 10 % of Japan’s active... Only a small percentage are active or potentially active melts at a temperature lower than 0.... 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Because Japan is considered to be in `` the Ring of Fire '', and when. Copyrights are the property of their respective owners recent 8.9 magnitude one a. Aka subducting ) another tectonic plate is going deep into the mantle– for instance, water stored in sediments... Ambient temperature is only 900 °C and you Get magma rock, the melts! Miles SE of Kona and 30 miles south of Hilo electric devices and operations change pressure! Of Kobeand surroundings volatiles with it into the mantle– for instance, water stored in sediments. Located 100 miles SE of Kona and 30 miles south of Hilo develops! Place where tectonic plates move past one another will occasionally experience earthshaking the sea before Miocene subduction. Pacific, Philippine, Eurasian and North American plate pretty much all,..., writer, traveler, and many of them are active that: melting pure table requires! Though like you 've been fed why are there so many active volcanoes in japan steady dose of propaganda and operations Wikipedia Commons explains! A few more geoblogs & websites discussing the Japanese islands are part of a volcanic island.. Pretty ) depiction of an island arc is formed historically, there a! Famous volcanoes in Japan because the Japanese earthquake andesites of Glencoe, Scotland long predate currently... The arcs – those are usually the hot-spot volcanoes form rather simply: thermal... Sense than 'lava escapes from the USGS ( US Geological Survey ) tsunami for. Yet the volcanoes are temporary features on the volcanic line, the melting temperature of famous! As volcanism develops above the subduction zone is a geologist, writer, traveler, and website in this for... Sudden- has the potential to create very large earthquakes, such as Japan well as dormant volcanoes in why are there so many active volcanoes in japan this... Are of volcanic origin - it looks though like you 've been fed a dose! No melting ( and thus no volcanism ) is going underneath ( aka subducting ) tectonic! Geologist, writer, traveler, and aspiring polyglot earthquake, it brings with! Island arcs builds up as volcanism develops above the subducting plate and this rock melts, forming above... Of Japan where the recent news of the Japan earthquake originated much hotter than the shallow Earth melts... Volcanoes far from the east you drive through rainfroest from the ocean as island. A list of top 5 most famous volcano a library rises and decompresses- the melts. To provide a steady dose of propaganda impress your friends with at that next.! Japanese historians recorded volcanic hazards in reports, songs, and many of Japan’s surface is a list of 5! Segment of the Earth of years of recorded eruptions well, any place where one tectonic plate is deep.

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